Some of The Most Endangered and Trafficked Mammals in the World

Slender horned gazelle
Gazella leptoceros

IUCN Classification: Vulnerable

CITES Classification: Appendix I

History

Slender horned gazelles are adapted to live in desert environments, with their pale coats to reflect the sun’s rays and their enlarged hooves to help them walk on the sand. The extreme heat of this environment limits their feeding to the early morning and evening. They obtain most of their water requirements from grazing on grass, and browsing on succulents, herbs and shrubs, but will drink water when there are available sources. Their social organization is likely to be flexible and adaptable to variation in conditions. In general they are observed to form groups of three to ten individuals, made up of one dominant male, several females and their young.

Threats

The main threat to the slender horned gazelle is hunting and poaching for its meat and horns, which are used as ornaments.

Range

Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia

Northern Hairy Nosed Wombat
Lasiorhinus krefftii

IUCN Classification: Critically Endangered

CITES Classification: Appendix I

History

The northern hairy nosed wombat is one of the rarest land mammals in the world. In the last census taken in 2010, the estimated population was 163 individuals, but in recent years, the population has experienced a slow but steady increase. Northern hairy-nosed wombats are nocturnal, living underground in networks of burrows, and feed on native grasses.  Their fat reserves and low metabolic allow them to go without food for several days when food is scarce. The northern hairy-nosed wombat has very poor eyesight and its survival is dependent on its superior sense of smell, which it uses to detect its food in the dark.

Threats

Threats to the northern hairy-nosed wombat include small population size, predation, competition for food, disease, floods, droughts, wildfires, and habitat loss.

Range

Australia

Red panda
Ailurus fulgens

IUCN Classification: Endangered

CITES Classification: Appendix I

History

Red pandas are arboreal and feed mainly on bamboo, but also eat eggs, birds, and insects. They are solitary animals, mainly active from dusk to dawn, and are largely sedentary during the day. Adults rarely interact in the wild except to mate. These pandas are very heat sensitive, with an optimal “well-being” temperature between 17 and 25 °C (63 and 77 °F), and cannot tolerate temperatures over 25 °C (77 °F). If they feel threatened or sense danger, they may try to escape by climbing a rock column or tree. If they can no longer flee, they stand on their hind legs to make themselves appear larger and use the sharp claws on their front paws to defend themselves.

Threats
The primary threats to red pandas are direct harvest from the wild, live or dead, competition with domestic livestock resulting in habitat degradation, and deforestation resulting in habitat loss or fragmentation. They are sometimes hunted for their fur or sold as pets.

Range
Bhutan, India, China, Myanmar, Nepal

Northern Muriqui
Brachyteles hypoxanthus

IUCN Classification: Critically Endangered

CITES Classification: Appendix I

History

The northern muriqui is a spider monkey endemic to Brazil. Unlike other primates, it shows egalitarian social relationships. Females mate with several males, which may serve to confuse paternity, limit male aggression, or improve odds of fertilization. Muriquis are the largest species of New World monkeys and feed mainly on leaves and twigs, but will also eat fruit. They often hang upside-down by its prehensile tail while eating.

The northern muriqui has been used in understanding human evolution, as it one of the few primates that has tolerant, nonhierarchial relationships among and between males and females, a feature shared with hunter-gatherer humans. Group aggression is also rare.

Threats

The Northern muriqui is one of the world’s most endangered primates. It is threatened by hunting, and destruction and fragmentation of the Atlantic Forest. It also suffers from low genetic diversity and is not well researched, which causes problems in its conservation.

Range

Brazil

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